What does CPR stand for?

What does CPR stands for
What does CPR stands for

What does CPR stand for? 

One of the most used first aid technique if a person suddenly falls unconscious and stops breathing is pressing in the chest area and breathing into their mouth. We have seen this in the entertainment industry or in real-life scenarios and might have also been encouraged to learn as this technique known as CPR. So what actually is a CPR?

CPR, also known as Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, is an emergency procedure performed to revive a stopped heart. It is a series of periodic chest compressions which is usually followed by mouth to mouth breaths for respiration aid performed on a person having a cardiac arrest.

C in CPR stands for:

The C in CPR stands for cardio which has to be resuscitated. In a cardiac arrest, the heart stops breathing and is thus not able to pump blood to the brain.

The cardiac pumping is aided in a CPR by compressing the middle of the chest. This leads to immediate death or permanent damage to the brain due to lack of oxygen but CPR forcefully pumps blood out of the heart and delivers oxygenated blood lowering the chances of brain death.

The compressions have to be in the middle of the chest performed at a rate of 100-120 per minute. Each compression should be about 2 inches deep and the recoil of the chest is just as important as compression as it allows the return of deoxygenated blood.

P in CPR stands for:

The P stands for pulmonary in CPR is the resuscitation of the lungs of the unconscious person. The person under a cardiac arrest will not carry any lung function. Periodic breathing is necessary to deliver oxygenated air to the lungs and then pump it via compressions to vital organs of the body.

R in CPR stands for:

The R in CPR stands for Resuscitation, which means reviving. As the pulmonary function of the lungs and pumping of the heart is stopped in a cardiac arrest resuscitation of these functions is necessary in order to keep the brain from being dead.

What are the three different types of CPR?

1. High-Frequency Chest Compressions 

High-frequency chest compression is a novel CPR technique that helps to improve the condition of a patient suffering from cardiac arrest. It is a mechanical method of chest physiotherapy which encompasses rapid air movement in and out of the lungs to clear the mucous and thus increase independent breathing. 

2. Open Chest CPR

Open chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a technique that includes massaging the heart in case of a cardiac arrest. Compression in this technique is performed by fingers or with a palm against the sternum to generate blood flow. This is a surgical procedure and also has a very high success rate among cardiac arrest patients. 

3. Interposed Abdominal Compression CPR

Interposed abdominal compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a cardiopulmonary resuscitation technique performed by applying positive pressure to the abdomen counteracting the rhythm of chest compression. It improves carbon dioxide excretion and statistically benefits patients more than standard CPR techniques as it increases diastolic atrial pressure and venous results which leads to improved coronary activity and thus ensures blood flow to vital organs. 

How to give an emergency CPR in 7 steps?

Before starting a cardiopulmonary resuscitation make sure that the environment is safe and that you have called the necessary professional help. Then, place the person on a comfortably on a firm surface and follow the steps mentioned below: 

1. Kneel near the person’s neck and one palm on top of another and place it between the two nipples of the person lying on the ground, i.e. Centre of the chest

2. Make sure that your fingers are interlocked before performing the chest compressions

3. Use the weight from your upper body rather than just your arm fore and push the chest about 2 inches inside. The rate of the compressions should be about 100 compressions a minute

4. Put your hands behind the head of the patient and lift it a little so that the mouth falls open. This will open the airway for rescue breaths

5. Pinch the nostrils of the person lying and breathe into their mouth. 

6. Check if the chest is rising and falling as you give the breaths. If not make sure you’ve opened the airway properly.

7. Continue providing this resuscitation until necessary help arrives or until the person becomes fully conscious. 

To make the cardiopulmonary resuscitation of high quality and optimize the benefit of the patient, there are a few other things that the rescuer has to keep in mind:

1. The chest compression fraction should be more than 80% and its rate should be between 100-120 compressions per minute.

2. Excessive ventilation should be avoided. The recommended compression to ventilation ratio is 30 compressions and 2 ventilation The compression depth should be about 2 inches.

3. Chest recoil is as important as compression while performing a CPR because as the chest fully recoiled the volume of blood returning to the heart through veins increases. This blood is oxygenated and again pumped through compression.

What should you not do during a CPR? 

The environment where a person is unconscious is highly tensed and is overwhelming for people around. The uncertainty and fear of what is happening make the situation stressful which might impair the rescuer’s judgment and make them prone to mistakes. There are a few things that a rescuer should make sure is not happening in such a situation to ensure the optimal environment and care for the patient. 

1. The first and foremost thing a rescuer should make sure before performing a CPR is that the person is lying on his/her back on a flat hard surface. Being on a soft surface might reduce the effectiveness of chest compressions. 

2. As cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a detail-oriented procedure, the rescuer needs their full attention on the patient. Therefore, it is important that there aren’t a lot of overwhelmed people around. The crowd should be dispersed. 

3. While performing CPR do not miss out on any steps. Missing even a single step will make your effort ineffective.

4. Do not stop the chest compression until there is other medical help available or until the person is conscious and properly respiring. Stopping the procedure in the middle stops the blood supply to vital parts of the body and result in death.

5. Do not let your nervousness affect the rate and depth of chest compression. If this happens, performing the procedure is of no use.

What is the most important part of CPR?

The most critical part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR is the management of proper depth and frequency of chest compression and rescue breaths.

Performing these steps properly will assure blood supply to the brain and other vital organs of the body and thus drastically increases the odds that a person under a cardiac arrest will survive. With the rate of people suffering from heart diseases increasing, one can always encounter a person undergoing a cardiac arrest.

If such a situation arises performing CPR you triple the chances of that person’s survival by helping to delay the onset of brain death. 

Does CPR get oxygen to the brain?

Yes, the main aim of any type of CPR has forcefully pumped the blood to the vital organs in case of a sudden cardiac arrest. Without chest compressions, the heart will not pump blood to the brain and other organs. Loss of oxygenated blood supply to the brain makes the brain permanently lose its functioning ability and thus cause brain death.

What actually happens in the body during chest compression is that proper compressions will push the blood out of the heart towards the brain through veins.

The continued supply of blood to the brain delays the onset of brain death and thus almost triples the chances of the patient’s survival. The mouth to mouth aided respiration will give the 20% oxygen you breathe out to the patient. 

The probability of survival after a cardiac arrest is very low and falls by every second. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR increases the chances of survival after a cardiac arrest but does not promise this chance the success rate of a properly conducted CPR is about 15% while the percentage of people who survived the treatment after six months was about 8% of the people discharged alive.

These rates are for a successfully conducted CPR, usually by a trained professional. 

What happens if you do CPR wrong?

CPR is a very detailed procedure that needs to be done with the utmost concentration. This delicate live-saving resuscitating procedure even if done with minimal error can cause all the efforts of the rescuer to go in vain. HERNA GARHO faults in the procedure might be excess pressure during compression, the wrong position of hands, frequency too slow, etc.

All these might cause complications, which most commonly are as follows:

Performing chest compressions resulted in rib fractures in about 20-30%. This fracture usually happened in the ribs connected to the sternum rather than floating ribs. 

While performing artificial respiration, gastric insufflation might occur. This results in vomiting which further obstructs the airway and compromises respiration, independent or artificial.

What are the side effects of CPR?

CPR is known to almost triple the chances of survival in case of a cardiac arrest. It is known to be one of the most important rescuing skills any individual is encouraged to learn. In spite of it being able to save lives but there are a few side effects that might be caused due to CPR and they are: 

1. Broken Ribs 

2. Aspiration vomiting which might temporarily further block the respiration pathway and later cause pneumonia.

3. Internal brain damage as the brain receives less oxygen than needed by the body.

4. The lungs may be weakened and the patient might require breathing aid.

5. While performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the body is technically dead and therefore does not feel any pain but if the person regains consciousness, he/she might experience pain due to chest soreness. Broken ribs and lung weakness can also cause discomfort.

Different types of CPR courses available?

There are different types of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques required at a different type of emergency. The technique you learn is also based on your background of studies and the level of skill required. Choosing the right CPR course is a challenge as the training has to vary according to your ideal situation use. The CPR training for a nurse and a layman is drastically different.

The typing course you decide to take also has to be certified and recognized by the heart association to ensure the optimal skill. 

The different type of cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPRs are as follows: 

1. Basic Life Support Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation – Basic CPR

A basic life support cardiopulmonary resuscitation class required basic training required in case of a cardiac arrest. It can be done by anyone without a lot of effort.

It type of resuscitation technique class is usually taken by the general public as it requires a very simple procedure of performing rhythmic compression. It is usually an additional benefit for jobs like security guards, teachers, babysitter, and people in other non-life-saving professions. 

2. Advanced Cardiac Life support – Advanced CPR 

Advanced cardiac life support is an advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation technique. Learning this technique requires completion of a basic life support car course and a good base in that. ACLS or advanced cardiac life support can only be provided by qualified health care providers as the provider has to be able to interpret the electrocardiograms, manage their airway, and initiate vascular access. The providers of ACLS are often nurses, doctors, pharmacists, or other emergency responders. 

3. Pediatric Advanced Life Support – Pediatric CPR 

Pediatric advanced life support or PALS is similar to advanced cardiac life support. The goal of this course is to properly manage critically ill infants. This technique is quite delicate compares to ACLS and therefore requires a different set of protocols that maximize the benefits for infants. It is performed by professional health care professionals involved in infant care because the skills required for this type of life support require in-depth assessment and management of respiration, defibrillation, and cardioversion.  

When to give a CPR

CPR is a life-saving emergency procedure given to a patient undergoing cardiac arrest. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is given to a person when he/she shows no signs of life such as lying unconscious, unresponsive, and not breathing normally. If you see these signs in a person make sure to start CPR without any delay. Searching for a pulse can waste your time and therefore decrease the chance of survival for the person. 

Some of the situations that might require cardiopulmonary resuscitation are :

1. Cardiac arrest

2. Choking

3. Traffic accident

4. Drowning

5. Suffocation

6. Poisoning

7. An overdose of drug or alcohol

8. Smoke inhalation

9. Electrocution


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