Wounds occur when the skin and underlying tissue are injured by a sharp object. These injuries may be minor or severe and can occur to any part of the body. They are painful and can become infected if not properly cared for. Medical assistance may be required if wounds are serious. These types of wounds are:
A). Open Wounds
- Penetrating wounds
- Puncture Wounds
- Surgical wounds and Incisions
- Thermal, Chemical or Electric Burns
- Bites and Stings
- Gunshot Wounds or Wounds Caused by Hight Velocity Projectiles
- Blunt Force Trauma
- Skin Tears
B). Closed Wounds
- Crush Injuries
I) Open Wounds
An open wound can be defined as the tear, break or opening in the body tissue causing internal or external injury depending upon the force and object of impact. Open wound includes as simple as paper cuts to as far as knife cuts.
Therefore identifyning the charateristics feature of the wound wll help you to deal with it accordingly and in time hence saving the life of your loved ones.
Open wounds can be further classified into:
A) Penetrating wounds
Penetrating wounds are formed by the penetration of the objects within the body tissue causing laceration, distruption and contusion of the adjacent tissue thus forming an open wounds.
1. Puncture Wound:
A puncture wound can be characterized as a deep wound caused by a nail, human, or animal bite with little to severe bleeding. A puncture wound, based on the force of impact and depth of tissue involved, can cause external injury alongside an increased high risk of severe internal injury and therefore organ damage.
Puncture wounds increase the risk of life-threatening infection and if a certain sign of concern is observed, seek medical attention promptly.
2. Surgical wounds and Incisions
Wounds formed during surgery as a result of cuts and incisions in the skin made by a scalpel. The healing time period of the wound greatly depends upon the area involved and the location of the incision.
3. Thermal, Chemical, or Electric Burns
Thermal Burns: Burns resulting from a heated object, flame, or hot water due to the exposure of the body directly or indirectly.
Chemical Burns: Certain substances and stronger acids cause tissue damage and depending upon the concentration and duration of exposure it penetrates the tissues leading to severe internal organ level damage.
Electric Burns: Exposure to electric current can cause damage to our body organs and can lead to skin burn as fire can initiate from the clothes depending upon the source and duration of exposure. It is highly advised to carry proper precautions before dealing with electrical appliances.
4. Bites and Stings:
Associated with simple scratches to Penetration of skin provoked by human bites or insects. Injury may be limited to superficial skin or lead to internal damage.
5. Gunshot Wounds:
A projectile fired from a firearm causes physical damage known as gunshot wounds. severe bleeding, immobility, organ damage, and body penetration are some of the few consequences of gunshot wounds.
B) Blunt Force Trauma
Blunt Force Trauma is the most common type of wound and occurs when an object strikes the body at a speed greater than 7.5 m/s causing blunt traumatic injury. The force is normally accompanied by enough velocity to cause tissue damage and can range anywhere from a slight abrasion to crushing and penetrating wounds that endanger major organs or bone.
They are commonly caused by the friction of the body being dragged but can also occur when a hard surface is dropped on an injury. The body may be dragged over this type of surface or the injured area may be pressed against it as one attempts to walk away from the injury. They can be painful and cause bleeding, but do not penetrate the skin except in severe cases. Such wounds heal faster than other types of injury.
Mostly occur on the ankles, knees, elbows, and shins. Abrasions can be severe or mild depending on the depth of the injury.
Caused when the skin’s soft tissue is torn. Lacerations are usually caused by sharp objects such as nails, glass, or wire. They may also occur when part of the body such as a finger or toe is cut off. All types of cuts require surgical repair to prevent infections and promote healing.
They appear jagged and may bleed a lot. Abrasions are usually very painful at first and then the pain starts to ebb away as they heal.
3. Skin Tears
It happens when the skin is stretched beyond its elastic limit, resulting in small tears in the skin which heal without leaving scars. A common location for skin tears is on the palms and soles of the feet. Skin tears are usually very painful at first and then the pain starts to ebb away as they heal.
Skin tears are very painful and keep bleeding until they are completely healed. Moreover, they become very stiff and sore before they heal, even sometimes leading to infection if not treated with medical care.
II. Closed Wounds
Closed Wounds occur when the skin is cut across at a 90-degree angle, usually resulting in a clean cut with no damage to tissues below the surface of the skin.
A contusion is a bruise and usually occurs when an injury strikes against a hard object such as the ground. A contusion may break blood vessels, resulting in increased bleeding that often obscures the area of impact. Mostly occur on the hands and legs, a contusion may result in reduced ability to grasp an object.
The pain of a contusion goes away within a short time, but the injury usually leaves a temporary discoloration on the skin which later fades away.
Contusions can be severe or mild depending on the depth of the injury. It may also depend on how much force is used to cause it too.
Blisters are a common type of injury to the skin and are caused by external forces pushing against the skin separating it from its underlying tissue. In this case, fluid seeps beneath the skin, and a blister forms which is a protective covering over a damaged area.
The blister will have an opening on one end (at the side of the injury) and it will be filled with clear fluid. Blisters vary in size but usually, they are on the palms of hands or under toes or fingers where there is excessive pressure being applied to that part. They may be painful but fortunately do not usually cause massive bleeding.
A Seroma is a collection of clear, serous fluid that results from swelling within the tissues. It most often occurs after surgery or after an injury has been sustained. The body’s response to trauma causes fluids to accumulate in the injured area as a result of inflammation, swelling, and bleeding. This buildup will usually occur in places that are hard for the body to drain off such as the feet and ankles.
The swelling will gradually go down in the injured area and is accompanied by pain, tenderness, and heat. The accumulation of fluids in the injured area can also lead to infection, but occasionally it will drain out on its own. The fluid will usually stay for about three weeks before going away by itself.
A hematoma is a localized collection of blood within the tissues caused when an injury ruptures a blood vessel. Bleeding will usually be accompanied by pain and swelling. A hematoma may also occur when blood is lost through an internal injury such as a cut.
Hematomas can be small or large and are most often found on the feet, legs, arms, hands, and head. Minor hematomas from trauma heal very quickly due to their ability to limit blood flow to the injured area. However, large hematomas may require surgery to reduce pressure in the injured area.
5. Crush Injuries
A crush injury is usually caused by a sudden impact against the body and is often accompanied by a large amount of force. The injury can break blood vessels, nerves, and bones.
Crush injuries are more serious than other types of injuries as they often involve fractures and/or major organ damage. These types of injuries can lead to nerve damage and require immediate medical care.
Wounds are an unpleasant and painful experience that can lead to an array of long-term health problems. There is a need for proper care, mainly in the initial stage after being injured and throughout the healing process. You need to be careful and must avoid unnecessary risks and continue to monitor your health condition. Wounds are treatable and the most serious ones can be easily cured, but you must seek medical help on time.